១. ធុរកិច្ចដែលមានលក្ខណៈអនុវត្តជាក់ស្ដែងដ៏ធំបំផុតក្នុងពិភពលោក (អានលម្អិត)
យុទ្ធនាការរៀនធ្វើជំនួញ ឬ #GoBusiness17 ជាកម្មវិធីបង្ហាត់យុវជនកម្ពុជាដើម្បីត្រៀមខ្លួនរួចជាស្រេចសម្រាប់ទីផ្សារការងារ ដែលបានចូលរួមដោយយុវជនកម្ពុជាចំនួន ២៣០៤នាក់ ជាចំនួនដ៏ច្រើនបំផុតមិនធ្លាប់មានពីមុននៅលើពិភពលោក។ ចំណែកអ្នកចូលរួមមានអាយុចាប់ពី១៥ឆ្នាំ ដល់២៩ឆ្នាំ ហើយសិក្ខាសាលាខ្នាតយក្សនេះ ប្រព្រឹត្តឡើងតាំងពីថ្ងៃទី២៤ ខែសីហា ឆ្នាំ២០១៧ នៅមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលសន្និបាត និងពិព័រណ៍កោះពេជ្រ។ ឥឡូវនេះ ព្រឹត្តិការណ៍ខាងលើបានបំបែកកំណត់ត្រាពិភពលោក Guinnessស្ដីពីសិក្ខាសាលាធុរកិច្ចអនុវត្តន៍ជាក់ស្ដែងដ៏ធំបំផុតនៅលើពិភពលោក។
២. រាំចង្វាក់ម៉ាឌីហ្សុន ដែលមានអ្នកចូលរួមច្រើនបំផុត (
កាលពីថ្ងៃទី១៥ ខែមេសា ឆ្នាំ២០១៥ កន្លងទៅថ្មីៗនេះ មនុស្សចំនួន ២០១៥នាក់ បានចូលរួមរាំចង្វាក់ម៉ាឌីហ្សុនក្នុងព្រឹត្តិការណ៍អង្គរសង្ក្រាន្តខេត្តសៀមរាប បំបែកកំណត់ត្រាពិភពលោកចាស់ដែលកាន់កាប់ដោយប្រទេសអូស្ត្រាលីកាលពីឆ្នាំមុនក្នុងចំនួនអ្នកចូលរួម ១១៥០នាក់។
៣. នំអន្សមយក្សខ្មែរត្រូវបានបញ្ចូលក្នុងកំណត់ត្រាពិភពលោក Guinness
នំអន្សមយក្ស ដែលធ្វើឡើងដើម្បីអបអរព្រឹត្តិការណ៍អង្គរសង្រ្កាន្តឆ្នាំ ២០១៥ ត្រូវបានចៅក្រមអន្តរជាតិសម្រេចដាក់ចូលទៅក្នុងកំណត់ត្រាពិភពលោក Guinness World Records ដោយជោគជ័យហើយ នារសៀលថ្ងៃទី ១៣ ខែ មេសា ឆ្នាំ២០១៥។ នេះបើតាមសេចក្តីប្រកាសព័ត៌មានរបស់សហភាពសហព័ន្ធយុវជនកម្ពុជា។
នំអន្សមយក្សមានទម្ងន់ដល់ទៅប្រមាណជាង ៤ តោន ក្រោយពីបានចម្អិនអស់រយៈពេល ៤៥ ម៉ោង ដែលទម្ងន់នេះ ជាទម្ងន់ដែលមិនធ្លាប់មានពីមុនមកនំអន្សមនេះ ត្រូវបានវេចខ្ចប់ដោយស្លឹកចេកទម្ងន់ ៣៣៣ គីឡូក្រាម និង ខ្សែចេកចំនួន ៣៧៥ គីឡូក្រាម ដោយមានគ្រឿងផ្សំ អង្ករដំណើប១,០០០ គីឡូក្រាម ខ្ទិះដូង ៤៩៩ គីឡូក្រាម អំបិល ១៥ គីឡូក្រាម សណ្ដែកបាយ ៤៩៩ គីឡូក្រាម សាច់ជ្រូកបីជាន់ ៥០៧ គីឡូក្រាម ស្ករ៤គីឡូក្រាម ម្រេចកំពត ៣ គីឡូក្រាម ខ្ទឹមចិញ្ច្រាំ ១០ គីឡូក្រាម និង ស្លឹកខ្ទឹមចិញ្រ្ចាំ ១៦ គីឡូក្រាម។ នំអន្សមនេះ ត្រូវបានចម្អិនតាមលក្ខណៈបច្ចេកទេសត្រឹមត្រូវ និង មានរសជាតិទាក់ទាញ ជាពិសេសនំអន្សមនេះ ត្រូវបានចម្អិនឡើងដោយក្រុមមេចុងភៅខ្មែរ និង កូនកំាំបិតចំនួន ១០០នាក់។
លោក ចាន់ សុភា តំណាងសមាគមចុងភៅកម្ពុជាបាននិយាយក្នុងទឹកមុខរីករាយថា ក្នុងនាមជាតំណាងសមាគមចុងភៅ ក៏ដូចជា ប្រជាជនកម្ពុជានៅទូទាំងប្រទេស លោកពិតជាមានមោទនភាព ដែលក្រុមការងារទាំងអស់បានរួមគ្នាធ្វើឲ្យកម្ពុជាបានលេចធ្លោនៅក្នុងពិភពលោក។
នំអន្សម ជាទូទៅត្រូវបានប្រជាជនខ្មែរធ្វើឡើងដើម្បីយកទៅប្រគេនព្រះសង្ឃ និង សែនព្រេនដល់បុព្វបុរសរបស់ខ្លួន ហើយពេលខ្លះអាចធ្វើជាអំណោយសម្រាប់សាច់ញាតិ បងប្អូន និងមិត្តភ័ក្ដិនៅក្នុងពិធីបុណ្យផ្សេងៗដូចជា ពិធីបុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំ និងភ្ជុំបិណ្ឌជាដើម ហើយសូម្បីតែពិធីមង្គលការក៏មាននំអន្សមដែរ។
គួរបញ្ជាក់ថា នំអន្សមនេះត្រូវបានធ្វើឡើងដោយសមាគមចុងភៅកម្ពុជា សហការជាមួយនឹងសមាគមស្រូវអង្ករកម្ពុជា ក្រសួងពាណិជ្ជកម្ម ក្រោមកិច្ចសម្របសម្រួលពីសហភាពសហព័ន្ធយុវជនកម្ពុជា ដើម្បីចូលរួមអបអរពិធីបុណ្យចូលឆ្នាំថ្មីប្រពៃណីជាតិខ្មែរ ។
តួអក្សរខ្មែរដែលស្ថាប័ន Guinness ទទួលស្គាល់មានទាំងអស់ ៧៤តួ (បច្ចុប្បន្នមិនប្រើទាំងអស់ទេ) ច្រើនលើសអក្ខរក្រមប្រទេសដទៃទៀតក្នុងលោក។
៥. ព្រះមហាក្សត្រ ដែលធ្លាប់កាន់តំណែងច្រើនបំផុត
ព្រះមហាវីរក្សត្រ ព្រះបាទនរោត្តម សីហនុ ព្រះបរមរតនកោដ្ឋ ធ្លាប់កាន់មុខតំណែងជាច្រើនដូចជា៖
ឆ្នាំ១៩៤១ ដល់១៩៥៥ ជាព្រះមហាក្សត្រ
ឆ្នាំ១៩៥៥ ដល់១៩៦៦ ជានាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី
ឆ្នាំ១៩៦០ ដល់១៩៧០ ជាព្រះប្រមុខរដ្ឋ
ឆ្នាំ១៩៨២ ដល់១៩៨៨ ជាប្រធានាធិបតីនិរទេស
ឆ្នាំ១៩៨៩ ដល់១៩៩១ ជាប្រមុខរដ្ឋាភិបាលនិរទេស
ឆ្នាំ១៩៩១ ដល់១៩៩៣ ជាព្រះប្រមុខរដ្ឋ
ឆ្នាំ១៩៩៣ ព្រះអង្គទ្រង់ឡើងគ្រងសម្បត្តិជាលើកទី២ រហូតដល់ដាក់រាជ្យសម្បត្តិក្នុងឆ្នាំ២០០៤
អំឡុងពេលរដូវវស្សា ទឹកទន្លេមេគង្គនៃប្រទេសកម្ពុជាជាប់ព្រំដែនឡាវ បានច្រាលឡើង ២០ដង ដែលចាល់ទឹកលាតសន្ធឹងដូចជាកូនសមុទ្រតូចមួយក្នុងទំហំ ពី១០ ទៅ ១៤គីឡូម៉ែត្រ។ អត្រាលំហូរទឹកនៅតំបន់នេះ ស្មើនឹង ២ដងនៃទឹកធ្លាក់ Niagara នៅចន្លោះប្រទេសកាណាដា និងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក។ ក្នុងមួយនាទី ទឹកប្រមាណ ១០លានម៉ែត្រគីប ហូរខ្លាំងដូចរន្ទះចាក់ខ្វាត់ខ្វែងតាមចន្លោះកោះនានា។
អណ្ដើកទឹកសាប ដែលមានកំណើតនៅក្នុងទន្លេមេគង្គនៃប្រទេសកម្ពុជា (Pelochelys cantorii) បានចំណាយពេល ៩៥ភាគរយនៃជីវិតរស់នៅក្រោមខ្សាច់បាតទន្លេ រង់ចាំចំណីអាហារទៅជិតមាត់។ អណ្ដើកកម្ជិលនេះឡើងលើផ្ទៃទឹកត្រឹមតែ ២ដងប៉ុណ្ណោះក្នុងមួយថ្ងៃ ដើម្បីដកដង្ហើម។
សំណង់ទាំងអស់នៃប្រជុំប្រាសាទអង្គរវត្ត ត្រូវបានសាងសង់ឡើងលើផ្ទៃដី ១៦២,៦ហិចតា ដែលជាសំណង់ឧទ្ទិសសាសនាធំជាងគេបំផុតក្នុងលោក។ ព្រះបាទសូរ្យវរ្ម័នទី២ ជាអ្នកសាងសង់ប្រាសាទដ៏អស្ចារ្យនេះឡើង ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១១១៣ ដល់១១៥០ ដើម្បីឧទ្ទិសដល់អាទិទេពសាសនាហិណ្ឌូ ព្រះវិស្ណុ។
ទីក្រុងវ៉ាស៊ីងតោន ៖ នៅក្នុងជំនួបពិភាក្សាការងារជាមួយ លោកជំទាវ Diane FARRELL ឧបការីរងក្រសួងពាណិជ្ជកម្មសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក អាមេរិកបានថ្លែងទៅកាន់ ឯកឧត្តម ប៉ាន សូរស័ក្តិ រដ្ឋមន្រ្តីក្រសួងពាណិជ្ជកម្ម អមដំណើរដោយឯកឧត្តម ជុំ ប៊ុនរ៉ុង ឯកអគ្គរាជទូតកម្ពុជា ប្រចាំនៅសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក នៅព្រឹកថ្ងៃទី០៩ ខែ សីហា ឆ្នាំ២០១៧ ថានឹងមិនមានការផ្លាស់ប្តូរគោលនយោបាយពាណិជ្ជកម្មជាមួយកម្ពុជាឡើយ។
លោកស្រីបានថ្លែងថា “សម្រាប់ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិកមិនមានបំណងចាត់វិធានការណាថ្មីនោះទេ ពោលគឺរក្សាស្ថានភាពទាក់ទងពាណិជ្ជកម្មដដែល ព្រោះទំហំពាណិជ្ជកម្ម ដែលកម្ពុជាបាននាំចូលមកសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក មានទឹកប្រាក់តែពី ០២-០៣ ប៊ីល្លានដុល្លារតែប៉ុណ្ណោះ។ បន្ថែមពីនេះទៀត រដ្ឋបាលលោកប្រធានាធិបតី Trump បានចាត់ទុកថា បណ្តាប្រទេសនៅតំបន់អាស៊ី-ប៉ាស៊ីហ្វិកគឺជាដៃគូពាណិជ្ជកម្មដ៏សំខាន់របស់ខ្លួន ក្នុងនោះរួមមាន ចិន កូរ៉េ ជប៉ុន កម្ពុជា ជាដើម ។ លោកជំទាវ បានបន្តថានឹងជួយដល់កម្ពុជា ក្នុងការកសាងធនធានមនុស្ស និងការអនុវត្តច្បាប់ពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងពាណិជ្ជកម្មនៅកម្ពុជា ។”
ជាកិច្ចឆ្លើយតប ឯកឧត្តមរដ្ឋមន្រ្តី ក៏បានថ្លែងអំណរគុណនូវការកោតសរសើររបស់ លោកជំទាវ និងបានជម្រាបអំពីស្ថានភាពនយោបាយមានស្ថេរភាព កំណើនសេដ្ឋកិច្ចរឹងមាំ ការធ្វើពាណិជ្ជកម្មទ្វេភាគីជាមួយសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក និងតំបន់ ភាពក្រីក្របានកាត់បន្ថយ ។ល។ ជាមួយគ្នានេះដែរ ឯកឧត្តមរដ្ឋមន្រ្តី ក៏បានស្នើសុំឲ្យលោកស្រីជួយជំរុញសហគ្រាសធុនតូចសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិកទៅធ្វើការវិនិយោគនៅកម្ពុជា នៅក្នុងនោះរួមមាន វិស័យបណ្តុះបណ្តាលវិជ្ជាជីវៈ និងវិស័យផ្សេងទៀត ការផ្តល់ជំនួយបច្ចេកទេសក្នុងការអនុវត្តច្បាប់កម្មសិទិ្ធបញ្ញា ច្បាប់ការប្រគួតប្រជែង ច្បាប់សុវតិ្ថភាពចំណីអាហារ ច្បាប់ពាណិជ្ជកម្មអេឡិចត្រូនិក ច្បាប់ឧបាស្រ័យពាណិជ្ជកម្ម និង បណ្តុះបណ្តាលធនធានមនុស្សកម្ពុជា ផងដែរ ។
ទីក្រុងវ៉ាស៊ីងតោន៖ នៅក្នុងដំណើរបំពេញបេសកកម្មផ្លូវការ និងក្រោយពីប្រជុំក្រុមប្រឹក្សាចម្រុះស្តីពីកិច្ច ព្រមព្រៀងក្របខ័ណ្ឌវិនិយោគ និងពាណិជ្ជកម្មលើកទី ៤ រវាងកម្ពុជា និងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក កាលពី ថ្ងៃទី០៩ ខែសីហា ឆ្នាំ២០១៧ ឯកឧត្តម ប៉ាន សូរស័ក្តិ រដ្ឋមន្រ្តីក្រសួងពាណិជ្ជកម្ម និងគណៈប្រតិភូកម្ពុជា បានអញ្ជើញចូលរួមជាកិត្តិយសនៅក្នុងកិច្ចប្រជុំពិសារអាហារថ្ងៃត្រង់ ដែលបានរៀបចំ ដោយក្រុមប្រឹក្សាធុរកិច្ចអាស៊ាន-សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក (ASEAN-U.S. BUSINESS COUNCIL – [USABC]) ប្រចាំនៅទីក្រុងវ៉ាស៊ីងតោន សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក។
ជាកិច្ចចាប់ផ្តើមលោក Alex Feldman ប្រធាន និងនាយកប្រតិបតិ្តរបស់ USABC បានស្វាគមន៍ យ៉ាងកក់ក្តៅដល់ដំណើរបំពេញបេសកកម្មផ្លូវការមកកាន់ទីក្រុងទីក្រុងវ៉ាស៊ីងតោន របស់ឯកឧត្តម រដ្ឋមន្រ្តីនិងគណៈប្រតិភូកម្ពុជា ដោយបានថ្លែងអំណរគុណយ៉ាងជ្រាលជ្រៅចំពោះការយល់ព្រមតាម ការអញ្ជើញរបស់ខ្លួន។ លោក Feldman បានជម្រាបសួរឯកឧត្តមរដ្ឋមន្រ្តី នូវ៖ ១.) ស្ថានភាពនយោ បាយ និងសេដ្ឋកិច្ចរបស់កម្ពុជា ២.) ចំណុចសំខាន់ៗ ដែលបានប្រព្រឹត្តិទៅនៅស្ថិតក្រោមក្រុមប្រឹក្សា ចម្រុះស្តីពីកិច្ចព្រមព្រៀងក្របខ័ណ្ឌវិនិយោគនិងពាណិជ្ជកម្មលើកទី ៤ រវាងកម្ពុជា និងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក និងលទ្ធផល ៣.) យន្តការកំណត់តម្លៃប្រេងឥន្ទនៈ។
ឆ្លើយតប ឯកឧត្តមរដ្ឋមន្រ្តីជម្រាបពីចំណុចសំខាន់ៗ ដែលបានពិភាក្សាជាមួយតំណាងពាណិជ្ជកម្ម របស់សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិកក្រោមកិច្ចព្រមព្រៀងក្របខ័ណ្ឌវិនិយោគនិងពាណិជ្ជកម្មលើកទី ៤ ស្ថានភាពស្ថេរ ភាពនយោបាយ សេដ្ឋកិច្ច និងកំណើនជាពិសេសបរិយាកាសវិនិយោគនៅកម្ពុជា។ លើសពីនេះ ឯកឧត្តមរដ្ឋមន្រ្តីក៏បានជម្រាបដល់ USABC ផងដែរ អំពីជោគជ័យនៃការបោះឆ្នោតជ្រើសរើសឃុំ សង្កាត់កាលពីខែមិថុនាឆ្នាំ២០១៧ ដោយមានប្រជាជនយ៉ាងច្រើនបាននាំគ្នាទៅបោះឆ្នោត ហើយគ្មាន អំពើហឹក្សា។ ដោយឡែក ចំពោះយន្តការកំណត់តម្លៃប្រេងឥន្ទនៈនៅកម្ពុជាគឺរដ្ឋាភិបាលប្រើប្រាស់ យន្តការនេះជាបណ្តោះអាសន្នក្នុងការ ជួយកាត់បន្ថយចំណាយខ្ពស់ដោយសារប្រេងឥន្ទនៈដល់អតិ ថិជននៅកម្ពុជា។ ឆ្លៀតនៅក្នុង ឯកឧត្តមរដ្ឋមន្រ្តីក៏បានធ្វើការអំពាវនាវដល់ក្រុមហ៊ុននានា ដែលជា សមាជិករបស់ USABC មកវិនិយោគនៅកម្ពុជា ផងដែរ។
Cambodia Labor Law Amendment (2007)
CAMBODIAN ADOPTED IP LAWS:
- Law on Marks, Trade Names, and Acts of Unfair Competition (2002), procedural sub-decree (2006)
- Law on Patents, Utility Model Certificates, and Industrial Designs (2003) , procedural sub-decree (2006)
- Law on Copyright and Related Rights (2003)
- Law on Plant Variety Protection (2008)
- Prakas on Geographical Indication Registration (2009)
IP LAWS REMAINING TO BE PASSED:
- Law on Trade Secret and Undisclosed Information
- Law on Geographical Indications
- Law on Compulsory Licensing for Public Health
- Law on Integrated Circuits and Layout Design
IP TREATY MEMBERSHIP
- Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883)
- WIPO Convention (1967)
- Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994)
- Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
Intellectual property is a vital asset for many firms doing business in Cambodia. Whether it be to distinguish goods from those of a competitor, protecting the fruits of research investment, or maintaining the confidentiality of financial plans, IP considerations surface in virtually all industries.
Cambodia’s 2004 accession to the World Trade Organization prompted the adoption of several laws regulating intellectual property rights. While it will be a number of years before Cambodia comes into full WTO compliance, investors can take advantage of this developing regulatory framework and seek out protection for their inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, and other creative products.
Although the laws are still in the early stages of development, relatively efficient procedures for registering and enforcing important IP rights are in place. Ignoring or postponing registering IP assets can be very costly in the long run.
This publication provides an overview of the principal areas of IP in Cambodia. Where there is no specific law – such as trade secrets or right of publicity – relevant articles of other laws are discussed. For more specific information, the reader is directed to our individual publications on each of the major IP regimes.
Trademarks allow their owners to prevent others from using identical or confusingly similar marks on their goods and services. Every enterprise operates under a trade name, and most also have trademarks that are separately protectable.
Indeed, registering and enforcing one’s trademarks is crucial to differentiating one’s products from those of competitors. While unregistered trade names receive a degree of protection, proper registration is a virtual necessity for any successful business.
Trademarks and related IPRs are protected under the Law on Marks, Trade Names and Acts of Unfair Competition of 2002. The Law lists the steps for registering a trademark and the scope of protection. An applicant who has already registered a mark in another member country of the Paris Convention will have priority in registering the mark in Cambodia.
The application process begins with the filing of an application form, fifteen specimens of the mark, and if filed by an agent, an original notarized power of attorney. Unless the application is rejected and requires an appeal, it usually takes about six months from filing to issuance of the final certificate.
Registrations are valid for ten years, renewable for successive ten-year terms. In the year following the fifth annivesary of the initial registration date, and each renewal registration date, the mark owner must submit an Affidavit of Use or Non-Use, and pay an official fee.
The Law also provides procedures for opposing, invalidating, and cancelling the marks of third parties. This can be crucial to prevent others from registering marks that are confusingly similar to one’s own.
A trademark owner has the right to prevent others from infringing their mark. The three main enforcement options are: i) sue in civil court for money damages and/or specific relief, ii) request the customs authorities to suspend clearance of imported infringing goods, and iii) seek criminal prosecution and/or fines.
Trademark law is the most developed field of IP in Cambodia. Though enforcement could be improved, registration procedures are well established and routinely practiced.
Patents & Utility Models
Patents and utility models protect the technical aspects of inventions. To receive a patent or utility model, the invention must be new and industrially applicable. For a patent, the invention must also involve an inventive-step, meaning it is not obvious to one skilled in the art. This is the key difference between the two – a utility model can be obvious, whereas a patentable invention cannot.
The Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs (2003) governs this area of IP. A protectable invention can be any idea which permits in practice the solution to a specific problem in the field of technology. The Law categorically excludes certain types of inventions, such as scientific theories and mathematical formulae. It also excludes inventions which are not socially “useful”, as they would harm public health or morality, such as illegal narcotics.
In exchange for a patent or utility model, the inventor must disclose the invention to the public. This way the body of public knowledge increases, and is available to all once the term of protection expires.
Patents last for 20 years from the date of filing. Utility models are valid for only 7 years. As utility models are less inventive than patented inventions, they are deemed to merit a shorter term of exclusivity. Owners of either must pay an annual maintenance fee to keep the registration alive.
Patent applications are filed with the Department of Industrial Property of the Ministry of Industry, Mines, and Energy (MIME). While Cambodia is not a party to the Patent Cooperation Treaty, the Law provides a procedure for registering foreign applications in Cambodia.
Patent owners need to be aware that their rights are subject to revocation and abridgement by the government. The Ministry has the right to exploit a patented invention itself, or allow a third party to do the same, to promote the public interest (e.g. national defense, nutrition, health, and development).
Further, holders who delay in exploiting their inventions risk having the government grant others licenses without their permission. Looking to the future, the government is currently considering a new law on compulsory licenses for certain drug patents.
The owner of a patent has the right to exclude others from making, importing, selling, stocking, offering for sale, and using infringing products. Both licensees and the patent owner have the right to bring a civil suit, seeking monetary damages and injunctive relief. The Law, however, does not provide a procedure for suspension of customs clearance for infringing goods.
Industrial designs protect a product’s special appearance, so long as it is new. The owner has the right to exclude others from exploiting the design, by making or selling it, for example.
The design can be a composition of lines or colors, a three-dimensional shape, or a novel material. Any technical product features are not protected, as that is the domain of patent law. Nor does it extend in a way that leaves no freedom as to arbitrary features of appearance.
As with patents and utility models, industrial designs are registered with the Department of Industrial Property of the Ministry of Industry, Mines, and Energy. In practice, the registration procedures are very similar.
Industrial design registrations last for a period of five years from the filing date, renewable for two further consecutive five-year terms, for a total of fifteen years.
Industrial designs are closely related to both copyrights and trademarks. In fact, there is significant overlap amongst the three, though each covers a different aspect of the product.
Cambodia’s Law on Copyright and Related Rights (2003) provides protection for original works of authorship. Books, sculptures, architecture, computer programs, paintings, photographs, musical compositions and many other types of work are governed by the Law.
Authors have both economic and moral rights to their works. Economic rights relate to the commercial exploitation of the work, and allow the author to prevent others from making copies or derivative works.
For most authors, the economic rights expire fifty years after their death. Special rules apply for anonymous, pseudonymous, posthumous, collective, and audiovisual works.
Moral rights, on the other hand, are perpetual and non-transferable. They allow an author to prevent the destruction or modification of their work, to insist on public attribution as the author, and to decide on the manner and timing of the work’s publication.
The Law limits these rights in a number of ways. For instance, reproducing a work for non-commercial educational or private home use is generally permitted. Contrary to public perception, copyright is not an absolute right to prohibit all uses of one’s work.
Unlike trademarks, patents, and most other IPRs, there is no need to register a copyright. Works are protected automatically from the time of creation.
Nevertheless, there is a voluntary deposit procedure to register works with the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts. Though the Law does not require, nor specify any particular advantage to registering, it could help in enforcing one’s rights in administrative or judicial proceedings.
A geographical indication is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific location, where the quality or reputation of the goods is essentially attributable to its place of origin. Examples of well-known geographical indications include Champagne, Florida Oranges, and Prosciutto di Parma. With a registered GI, regional producers should be better able to distinguish their goods from those of competitors, and hopefully charge a premium price.
Since early 2009, GIs are registrable with the Ministry of Commerce under an interim regulation, as the National Assembly considers a full GI law to comply with its WTO obligations.
As part of the registration procedure, the applicant must submit a Book of Specifications detailing the geographical area, production conditions, and qualification process for the products. Both domestic and foreign GIs can be registered. The initial term of protection is for ten years, renewable indefinitely.
Thus far, there have been two GI registrations – Kampot Pepper and Palm Sugar from Kompung Speu.
A trade secret is typically defined as any commercially valuable information that is not known, nor readily ascertainable, and is subject to reasonable efforts to maintain its secrecy.
Cambodia has no law specific to trade secrets, though a draft is under consideration. Nevertheless, provisions in a variety of laws impose duties of confidentiality and penalties for divulgence of commercial secrets.
Non-disclosure agreements are often used to maintain the confidentiality of information that needs to be shared, with an employee or contractor for example. Such agreements are contracts like any other, and should be enforceable under the Contract Law (1988).
The Law on Commercial Enterprises (2005) prohibits the unauthorized publication of a firm’s financial statements. The Law on Audit (2000) also imposes a duty of confidentiality on government auditors.
The Law on Banking and Financial Institutions (1999) prohibits certain people from disclosing any confidential information in accounting or administrative documents. The Law provides for criminal penalties of up to five years imprisonment and 250 million riels (approximately $62,000) in fines.
As in virtually every country, the Law on the Bar (1995) requires lawyers to maintain client confidences.
Finally, the Penal Code (2009) contains several provisions on point. Under the Code, any person who holds, by reason of their position, profession, function or mission, confidential information, and divulges such information, is subject to criminal prosecution. The Law also criminalizes the intercepting of mail, tapping into telephone calls, and hacking of computer networks.
Right of Publicity
The right of publicity allows an individual to prohibit or control the use of his identity for commercial purposes. This would prohibit, for instance, placing on a product’s package a photograph of someone without their permission.There is no law in Cambodia specifically on point, nor are any drafts currently under consideration.
The unauthorized use of someone’s identity for commercial purposes may be considered a form of unfair competition, in violation of “honest practice”. However, to the author’s knowledge, this has never been tested in a Cambodian court of law.
Perhaps the only legal provision treating the right of publicity is Article 26 of the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (2003), which prohibits unauthorized biographies.
Acts of unfair competition are prohibited under a separate chapter of the Trademark Law. These provisions are short, broad and vague. Any act of competition contrary to “honest practices” in business is prohibited. The law then lists three types of behavior as specifically, but non-exclusively, forbidden:
- All acts which create confusion with the establishment, the goods, or services of a competitor;
- False allegations which discredit a competitor’s goods or services; and
- Indications or allegations which are liable to mislead the public as to the nature, manufacturing process, characteristics, suitability, or quantity of goods.
As with much of Cambodian law, there appears to have been no official interpretation or precedential cases explaining these provisions.
LAW ON INVESTMENT (August 05, 1994)
AND LAW ON THE AMENDMENT TO THE LAW ON INVESTMENT_030324
KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA
Nation Religion King
LAW ON INVESTMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA (August 05, 1994)
LAW ON THE AMENDMENT TO THE LAW ON INVESTMENT
OF THE KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA
(March 24, 2003)
Article 1: New
This law governs all Qualified Investment Projects and defines procedures by which any person establishes a Qualified Investment Project.
Only Qualified Investment Projects are entitled to the benefits subject to the scope of this Law.
Article 2: New
Within the meaning of this Law, the following terms shall be defined as follows:
“Qualified Investment Project” or “QIP” means an investment project which has received a Final Registration Certificate.
“Export QIP” means a Qualified Investment Project whose production is exported to be determined by Sub-Decree.
“Supporting Industry QIP” means a Qualified Investment Project which has its entire production (100%) supplying export industry as substitution for the regularly imported raw materials or accessories.
“Working day” means any calendar day which is an official working day of the Royal Government of Cambodia.
“Cambodian Entity” means a company which has a place of business and registered in the Kingdom of Cambodia and 51% or more of the shares of the company are held by a person with Cambodian nationality.
“Person” means any natural or juristic person.
“Conditional Registration Certificate” means the document issued by the Council under the paragraph 3 of the new Article 7 of this Law.
“Final Registration Certificate” means the document issued by the Council for the Development of Cambodia under the paragraph 7 of the new Article 7 of this Law.
“Investment Proposal” means the proposal submitted by any person to the Council for the Development of Cambodia with the purpose to establish a QIP.
“Applicant” means any person or group of persons submitting an Investment Proposal to the Council for the Development of Cambodia.
“Investor” means any person who carries on a Qualified Investment Project.
THE COUNCIL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAMBODIA
The Council for the Development of Cambodia is the sole and One-Stop Service organization responsible for the rehabilitation, development and the oversight of investment activities. The council for the Development of Cambodia is the Royal Government’s “Etat-Major” responsible for the evaluation and the decision-making on all rehabilitation, development and investment project activities.
The Council for the Development of Cambodia comprises the following two operational boards:
1- The Cambodian Rehabilitation and Development Board; and
2- The Council for the Development of Cambodia
The organization and functioning of the council for the Development of Cambodia shall be specified by Sub-Decree.
Article 6: New
All persons wishing to establish a QIP shall submit an Investment Proposal to the Council for the Development of Cambodia in the form and according to the procedures provided in this Law and the Sub-Decree.
Article 7: New
Within three (03) working days of the Council’s receipt of the Investment Proposal, the Council shall issue to the Applicant a Conditional Registration Certificate or a Letter of Non-Compliance.
The Council shall issue the Conditional Registration Certificate if the Investment Proposal contains all the information required under the Sub-Decree, and if the proposed activity is not in the Negative List set out in the Sub-Decree. However, if the Investment Proposal does not satisfy the above condition, the Council shall issue a Letter of Non-Compliance to the Applicant.
The Conditional Registration Certificate shall specify the approvals, authorizations, clearances, licenses, permits or registrations required for the QIP to operate, as well as the government entities responsible to issue such approvals, clearances, licenses, permits or registrations. The Conditional Registration Certificate shall also confirm the incentives that the QIP is entitled to under new Article 14 of this Law and recognize the statutes of the legal entity, which will undertake the QIP.
If the Council for the Development of Cambodia fails to issue a Conditional Registration Certificate or Letter of Non-Compliance within three working days, the Conditional Registration Certificate shall be considered to be automatically approved in the form set out in the Sub-Decree.
The Council for the Development of Cambodia shall obtain all of the licenses from relevant ministries-entities listed in the Conditional Registration Certificate on behalf of the Applicant.
All government entities responsible for issuing an authorization, clearance, license, permit or registration listed on the Conditional Registration Certificate shall issue such document no later than the 28th working day from the date of the Conditional Registration Certificate. Any government official who, without proper reason, fails to respond to an Applicant’s request by this deadline shall be punished by law.
The Council for the Development of Cambodia shall issue a Final Registration Certificate within 28 working days of its issuance of the Conditional Registration Certificate. Issuance of the Final Registration Certificate does not release the QIP from obtaining any other approvals specified by competent ministries-entities. Even upon the lapse of the 28 working days deadline as stipulated in the paragraph 6 above, all competent entities shall issue approvals as prescribed by laws and regulations. The date of issuing the Final Registration Certificate shall be the date of QIP commencement.
All Letters of Non-Compliance shall clearly state the clear reasons why the Investment Proposal was not acceptable as well as the additional information required to enable the Council to issue a Conditional Registration Certificate.
Article 8: New
A foreign investor shall not be treated in any discriminatory way by reason only of the investor being a foreign investor, except in respect of ownership of land as set forth in the Land Law.
The Royal Government shall not undertake nationalization policy, which shall adversely affect private properties of investors in the Kingdom of Cambodia.
Article 10: New
The Royal Government shall not fix the price or fee of the products or services of a QIP.
In accordance with the relevant laws and regulations issued and published to the public by the National Bank of Cambodia, the Royal Government shall permit investors with investments in Cambodia to purchase foreign currencies through the banking system and to remit abroad these currencies for the discharge of financial obligations incurred in connection with their investments. This concerns the following payments.
1- Payment for imports and repayment of principle and interest on international loans;
2- Payment of royalties and management fees;
3- Remittance of profits; and
4- Repatriation of invested capital in compliance with Chapter 8.
Article 12: New
The Royal Government shall make available incentives under this Chapter to Qualified Investment Projects.
Incentives and privileges shall include the exemption, in whole or in part, of custom duties and taxes.
Article 14: New
Incentives provided for in Article 13 shall include as follow:
- A QIP shall be entitled to exemption from the tax on profit imposed under the Law on Taxation by obtaining a profit tax exemption period.
The tax exemption period is composed of a Trigger Period + 3 years + Priority Period. Priority Period shall be determined in the Financial Management Law.
The maximum Trigger Period is to be first year of profit or three years after the QIP earns it first revenue, whichever is sooner.
- The entitlement of a QIP under the paragraph 1 above shall be subject to the QIP obtaining from the Council an annual certificate of obligation satisfaction before the State which shall be specified by the Sub-Decree.
- A QIP shall be subject to a profit tax rate after its tax exemption period as determined in the Law on Taxation
- A QIP which uses the entitlement under the paragraph 1 above shall not be entitled to claim any special depreciation under the Law on Taxation.
- A domestically oriented QIP shall be entitled to import production equipment and production input construction materials, exempt of duty which shall be specified by the Sub-Decree.
- Export QIPs other than an Export QIP which elects or which has elected to use the Customs Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse mechanism, shall be entitled to import production equipment, construction materials, raw materials, intermediate goods, and production input accessories, exempt of duty which shall be specified by the Sub-Decree.
- A “Supporting Industry” QIP shall be entitled to import production equipment, construction materials, raw materials, intermediate goods and production input accessories, exempt of duty which shall be specified by the Sub-Decree.
- A person which has acquired, or merged with, an investor, may on application to the Council for the Development of Cambodia inherit all, and any, guarantees, rights, privileges and obligations from the investor’s QIP, subject to the merger or acquisition procedures which shall be specified by the Sub-Decree.
- A QIP which is located in a designated SPZ or EPZ listed in a development priority list issued by the Council shall be entitled to the same incentives and privileges as other QIPs stipulated in this law.
- A QIP shall be entitled to 100% exemption of export tax, except for activities as stipulated in laws in effective.
- A QIP is entitled to obtain visas and work permits for the employment in the Kingdom of foreign citizens as managers, technicians and skilled workers, and residency visas for the spouses and dependants of those foreign nationals as authorized by the Council for the Development of Cambodia and in compliance with the Immigration and Labor Laws.
Article 15: New
The rights, privileges and entitlements of a QIP may not be transferred or assigned to any third party except by acquisition or merger as stipulated in the paragraph 8 of the new Article 14.
LAND OWNERSHIP AND USE
Article 16: New
Ownership of land by investors for the purpose of carrying on a QIP shall be vested in natural persons holding Cambodian citizenship or in Cambodian Entities.
Use of land shall be permitted to investor, including concessions, unlimited long-term leases and limited short-term leases which are renewable, in compliance with the provisions of the Land Law.
Investors shall have the right to own and pledge as security and transfer the real and personal property situated upon the land and land which the QIP uses, for a period no longer than the period determined in a land concession contract or land lease agreement as permitted by Law.
Investors cannot transfer or pledge any longer the land concession, which has not been in operation.
Investors in the Kingdom of Cambodia shall be free to hire Cambodian nationals and foreign nationals of their choosing in compliance with the labor and immigration laws.
Article 18: New
Investors shall be allowed to hire foreign employees provided that:
– The qualification and expertise are not available in the Kingdom of Cambodia among the Cambodian populace. In the event of such hiring, appropriate documentation including photocopies of the employee’s passport, certificate and/or degree and a curriculum vitae shall be submitted to the Council for the Development of Cambodia,
– A letter asserting needs for hiring the foreign employees shall be required. Investors shall obtain an approval and a permit from the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor, Vocational Training and Youth Rehabilitation,
– Before working for investors, the foreign employee shall hold a permit for work in the Kingdom of Cambodia, issued by the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor, Vocational Training and Youth Rehabilitation.
Investors shall perform the following obligations:
– Provide adequate and consistent training to Cambodian staff,
– Promotion of Cambodian staff to senior positions will be made over time.
Foreign employees shall be allowed to remit abroad their wages and salaries earned in the Kingdom of Cambodia, after payment of appropriate tax, in foreign currencies obtained through the banking system.
DISPUTES AND DISSOLUTION
Article 20: New
Except for land-related disputes, any dispute relating to a QIP concerning its right and obligations set forth in the law shall be settled amicably as far as possible through consultation between the Council for the Development of Cambodia, the investors and any other party involved in the dispute.
If the parties failed to reach an amicable settlement within two months from the date of the first written request to enter such consultations, the dispute shall be brought by either party for:
– Conciliation before the Council which shall provide its opinion, or
– Arbitration in or outside of Cambodia as agreed by both parties, or
– Trial by the tribunals of the Kingdom of Cambodia.
Article 21: New
If an investor intends to end its activities in the Kingdom of the Cambodia, it shall inform the Council for the Development of Cambodia through either a registered letter or a hand delivered letter stating the reason of such a decision, and signed by the investor or his attorney-in fact.
Article 22: New
If an investor intends to stop the activity of its QIP without judicial procedures, the investor shall provide proof to the Council that the QIP has properly settled its debts, including any complainants and claims from the Ministry of Economy and Finance, before the investor is allowed to officially stop the activities of the QIP or dissolve according to the applicable commercial law.
Article 23: New
Once the QIP is allowed to stop its activity either within the judicial procedures or not, the investor can transfer the remaining proceeds of their assets overseas or use them in the Kingdom of Cambodia. However, in the event that the QIP had used machineries and equipment that were imported duty free for less than five years, the QIP shall have the obligations to pay the duties applicable to those machineries and equipment, according to the determination of the Sub-Decree.
NEW CHAPTER 9
Article 24: New
All investments authorized under the Law on Investment promulgated by Royal Kram No. 03/NS/94 dated August 05, 1994 and Sub-Decrees shall be considered to be Qualified Investment Projects as stipulated in this Law and relevant Sub-Decrees.
An QIP entitled to a tax on profit rate of 9% before the promulgation of this Law and which has commenced the investment activity in respect of which the approval was granted, shall be entitled to that 9% tax rate for five tax years commencing from the fiscal year after the promulgation of this Law, subject to the Investors submitting in each fiscal year after the promulgation of this law a certificate of obligation satisfaction before the State, which shall be specified by the Sub-Decree as stipulated in the paragraph 2 of the new Article 14.
A QIP entitled to an exemption of tax on profit before promulgation of this Law, and whose entitlement has been approved in writing by the Council, shall continue to be entitled to that profit tax exemption, subject to the Investors submitting in each fiscal year after the promulgation of this Law a certificate of obligation satisfaction before the State, which shall be specified by the Sub-Decree as stipulated in the paragraph 2 of the new Article 14.
NEW CHAPTER 10
Article 25: New
Where the QIP violates or fails to comply with the conditions stipulated by the Council for the Development of Cambodia, the Council shall have the power to withdraw the privileges and incentives granted to him, in whole or in part.
Article 26: New
Any provisions contrary to this Law shall be abrogated.
Article 27: New
This Law shall be promulgated immediately.
This law is adopted by the National Assembly
of the Kingdom of Cambodia in
Phnom Penh on February 3, 2003
during the ninth plenary session of the second legislature.
Phnom Penh, February 4, 2004
Chairman of the National Assembly
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