12-Step Guide to Starting a Business

There are no limits on who can become a great entrepreneur. You don’t necessarily need a college degree, a bunch of money in the bank or even business experience to start something that could become the next major success. However, what you do need is a strong plan and the drive to see it through.

If you’re on Entrepreneur, odds are you already have the drive, but, you might not know how to start building your empire.

That why we are here.

Check out this step-by-step guide to help turn your big idea into a successful business.

1. Evaluate yourself.

Why do you want to start a business? Use this question to guide what kind of business you want to start. If you want extra money, maybe you should start a side hustle. If you want more freedom, maybe it’s time to leave your 9-to-5 job and start something new.

Once you have the reason, start asking yourself even more questions to help you figure out the type of business you should start, and if you have what it takes.

  • What skills do you have?
  • Where does your passion lie?
  • Where is your area of expertise?
  • How much can you afford to spend, knowing that most businesses fail?
  • How much capital do you need?
  • What sort of lifestyle do you want to live?
  • Are you even ready to be an entrepreneur?

Be brutally honest with your answers.

2. Think of a business idea.

Do you already have a killer business idea? If so, congratulations, you can proceed to the next section. If not, there are a ton of ways to start brainstorming for a good idea. An article on Entrepreneur, “8 Ways to Come Up With a Business Idea,” helps people break down potential business ideas. Here are a few pointers from the article:

  • Ask yourself what’s next. What technology or advancement is coming soon, and how will that change the business landscape as we know it? Can you get ahead of the curve?
  • Fix something that bugs you. People would rather have less of a bad thing than more of a good thing. If your business can fix a problem for your customers, they’ll thank you for it.
  • Apply your skills to an entirely new field. Many businesses and industries do things one way because that’s the way they’ve always been done. In those cases, a fresh set of eyes from a new perspective can make all the difference.
  • Use the better, cheaper, faster approach. Do you have a business idea that isn’t completely new? If so, think about the current offerings and focus on how you can create something better, cheaper or faster.

Also, go out and meet people and ask them questions, seek advice from other entrepreneurs, research ideas online or use whatever method makes the most sense to you.

And, if you’ve exhausted all your options and you’re still stuck, here are 55 great business options you can start.

3. Do market research.

Is anyone else already doing what you want to start doing? If not, is there a good reason why?

Start researching your potential rivals or partners within the market by using this guide. It breaks down the objectives you need to complete with your research and the methods you can use to do just that. For example, you can conduct interviews by telephone or face to face. You can also offer surveys or questionnaires that ask questions like “What factors do you consider when purchasing this product or service?” and “What areas would you suggest for improvement?”

Just as importantly, it explains three of the most common mistakes people make when starting their market research, which are:

  1. Using only secondary research.
  2. Using only online resources.
  3. Surveying only the people you know.

4. Get feedback.

Let people interact with your product or service and see what their take is on it. A fresh set of eyes can help point out a problem you might have missed. Plus, these people will become your first brand advocates, especially if you listen to their input and they like the product.

One of the easiest ways to utilize feedback is to focus on “The Lean Startup” approach, but it involves three basic pillars: prototyping, experimenting and pivoting. By pushing out a product, getting feedback and then adapting before you push out the next product, you can constantly improve and make sure you stay relevant.

Just realize that some of that advice, solicited or not, will be good. Some of it won’t be. That’s why you should have a plan on how to receive feedback.

Here are six steps for handling feedback:

  1. Stop! Your brain will probably be in an excited state when receiving feedback, and it might start racing to bad conclusions. Slow down and take the time to consider carefully what you’ve just heard.
  2. Start by saying ‘thank you.’ People who give you negative feedback won’t expect you to thank them for it, but doing so will probably make them respect you and encourage them to continue be honest in the future.
  3. Look for the grain of truth. If someone doesn’t like one idea, it doesn’t mean they hate everything you’ve just said. Remember that these people are trying to help, and they might just be pointing out a smaller problem or solution that you should look into further.
  4. Seek out the patterns. If you keep hearing the same comments, then it’s time to start sitting up and taking notice.
  5. Listen with curiosity. Be willing to enter a conversation where the customer is in control.
  6. Ask questions. Figure out why someone liked or didn’t like something. How could you make it better? What would be a better solution?

Also, one way to help you get through negative feedback is to create a “wall of love,”where you can post all of the positive messages you’ve received.Not only will this wall of love inspire you, but you can use these messages later when you begin selling your product or service. Positive reviews online and word-of-mouth testimonials can help make a big difference.

 

5. Make it official.

Get all of the legal aspects out of the way early. That way, you don’t have to worry about someone taking your big idea, screwing you over in a partnership or suing you for something you never saw coming. A quick checklist of things to shore up might include:

  1. Business structure (LLC, corporation or a partnership, to name a few.)
  2. Business name
  3. Register your business
  4. Federal tax ID
  5. State tax ID
  6. Permits (more on permits here)
  7. License
  8. Necessary bank account
  9. Trademarks, copyrights or patents

While some things you can do on your own, it’s best to consult with a lawyer when starting out, so you can make sure you’ve covered everything that you need.

6. Write your business plan.

A business plan is a written description of how your business will evolve from when it starts to the finish product.

As angel investor and tech-company founder Tim Berry wrote on Entrepreneur, “You can probably cover everything you need to convey in 20 to 30 pages of text plus another 10 pages of appendices for monthly projections, management resumes and other details. If you’ve got a plan that’s more than 40 pages long, you’re probably not summarizing very well.”

Here’s what we suggest should be in your business plan:

  1. Title page. Start with name the name of your business, which is harder than it sounds. This article can help you avoid common mistakes when picking.
  2. Executive summary. This is a high-level summary of what the plan includes, often touching on the company description, the problem the business is solving, the solution and why now. (Here’s what you should include in the summary and how you can make it appeal to investors.)
  3. Business description. What kind of business do you want to start? What does your industry look like? What will it look like in the future?
  4. Market strategies. What is your target market, and how can you best sell to that market?
  5. Competitive analysis. What are the strengths and weakness of your competitors? How will you beat them?
  6. Design and development plan. What is your product or service and how will it develop? Then, create a budget for that product or service.
  7. Operations and management plan. How does the business function on a daily basis?
  8. Finance factors. Where is the money coming from? When? How? What sort of projections should you create and what should you take into consideration?

For each question, you can spend between one to three pages. Keep in mind, the business plan is a living, breathing document and as time goes on and your business matures, you will be updating it.

7. Finance your business.

There are a ton of different ways to get the resources you need to start your business.Angel investor Martin Zwilling, whose business Startup Professionals provides services and products for startups and small businesses, recommends 10 of the most reliable ways to fund your business. Take a look and consider your own resources, circumstances and life state to figure out which one works best for you.

  1. Fund your startup yourself. Bootstrapping your business might take longer, but the good part is that you control your own destiny (and equity).
  2. Pitch your needs to friends and family. It can be hard to separate business from personal relationships, but if you’re considering asking for a loan, here’s a resource you can use to make it as straightforward as possible.
  3. Request a small-business grant. Start by checking out our guide to small-business grants. Then, head over to Grants.gov, which is a searchable, online directory of more than 1,000 federal grant programs. It might be a long process, but it doesn’t cost you any equity.
  4. Start a crowdfunding campaign online. Sometimes power is in numbers, and a bunch of small investments can add up to something major. If you think your business might be a fit for something like Kickstarter or Indiegogo, you should read up on 10 of the best-crowdfunded businesses ever or check out the most popular crowdfunding websites.
  5. Apply to local angel investor groups. Online platforms such as Gust and AngelList and local networking can help you find potential investors who relate to your industry and passion.
  6. Solicit venture capital investors. VCs typically look for big opportunities from proven teams that need a million dollars or more, so you should have some traction before approaching them.
  7. Join a startup incubator or accelerator. These companies are designed to help new or startup businesses get to the next level. Most provide free resources, including office facilities and consulting, along with networking opportunities and pitch events. Some, also provide seed funding as well.
  8. Negotiate an advance from a strategic partner or customer. If someone wants your product or service bad enough to pay for it, there’s a chance they’ll want it bad enough to fund it, too. Variations on this theme include early licensing or white-labeling agreements.
  9. Trade equity or services for startup help. For example, you could support a computer system for office tenants in exchange for free office space. You might not get paid for this, but you won’t have to pay for an office, either, and a penny saved is a penny earned.
  10. Seek a bank loan or line of credit. Here are 10 questions you should ask before applying for a bank loan, including whether you will qualify. If you do meet the requirements, a good place to start for loan opportunities is the Small Business Administration.

8. Develop your product or service.

After all the work you’ve put into starting your business, it’s going to feel awesome to actually see your idea come to life. But keep in mind, it takes a village to create a product. If you want to make an app and you’re not an engineer, you will need to reach out to a technical person. Or if you need to mass-produce an item, you will have to team up with a manufacturer.

Here is a seven-step checklist — including finding a manufacturer and pricing strategies — you can use for your own product development. A major point the article highlights is that when you’re actually crafting the product, you should focus on two things: simplicity and quality. Your best option isn’t necessarily to make the cheapest product, even if it lowers manufacturing cost. Also, you need to make sure the product can grab someone’s attention quickly.

When you are ready to do product development and outsource some of the tasks make sure you:

  1. Retain control of your product and learn constantly. If you leave the development up to someone else or another firm without supervising, you might not get the thing you envisioned.
  2. Implement checks and balances to reduce your risk. If you only hire one freelance engineer, there’s a chance that no one will be able to check their work. If you go the freelance route, use multiple engineers so you don’t have to just take someone at their word.
  3. Hire specialists, not generalists. Get people who are awesome at the exact thing you want, not a jack-of-all-trades type.
  4. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. Make sure you don’t lose all of your progress if one freelancer leaves or if a contract falls through.
  5. Manage product development to save money. Rates can vary for engineers depending on their specialties, so make sure you’re not paying an overqualified engineer when you could get the same end result for a much lower price.

To help you have peace of mind, start learning as much as you can about the production, so you can improve the process and your hiring decisions as time goes along.

This process will be very different for service-focused entrepreneurs, but no less important. You have several skills that people are willing to pay you for right now, but those skills can be hard to quantify. How can you establish yourself and your abilities? You might consider creating a portfolio of your work — create a website to show your artwork if you’re an artist, writing if you’re a writer or design if you’re a designer.

Also, make sure you have the necessary certificates or educational requirements, so that when someone inquires about your service, you’re ready to jump at a good opportunity.

9. Start building your team.

To scale your business, you are going to need to hand off responsibilities to other people. You need a team.

Whether you need a partner, employee or freelancer, these three tips can help you find a good fit:

  1. State your goals clearly. Make sure everyone understands the vision and their role within that mission at the very start.
  2. Follow hiring protocols. When starting the hiring process you need to take a lot of things into consideration, from screening people to asking the right questions and having the proper forms. Here is a more in-depth guide to help you.
  3. Establish a strong company culture.  What makes a great culture?  What are some of the building blocks? You can see our list of 10 examples of companies with great cultures, but keep in mind that you don’t need to have Google’s crazy office space to instill a positive atmosphere. That’s because a great culture is more about respecting and empowering employees through multiple channels, including training and mentorship, than it is about decor or ping-pong tables. In fact, office perks can turn out to be more like traps than real benefits.

Related: 10 Online Careers You Can Start Today With Basically No Money

10. Find a location.

This could mean an office or a store. Your priorities will differ depending on need, but here are 10 basic things to consider:

  1. Style of operation. Make sure your location is consistent with your particular style and image.
  2. Demographics. Start by considering who your customers are. How important is their proximity to your location? If you’re a retail store that relies on the local community, this is vital. For other business models, it might not be.
  3. Foot traffic. If you need people to come into your store, make sure that store is easy to find. Remember: even the best retail areas have dead spots.
  4. Accessibility and parking. Is your building accessible? Don’t give customers a reason to go somewhere else because they don’t know where to park.
  5. Competition. Sometimes having competitors nearby is a good thing. Other times, it’s not. You’ve done the market research, so you know which is best for your business.
  6. Proximity to other businesses and services. This is more than just about foot traffic. Look at how nearby businesses can enrich the quality of your business as a workplace, too.
  7. Image and history of the site. What does this address state about your business? Have other businesses failed there? Does the location reflect the image you want to project?
  8. Ordinances. Depending on your business, these could help or hinder you. For example, if you’re starting a daycare center, ordinances that state no one can build a liquor store nearby might add a level of safety for you. Just make sure you’re not the one trying to build the liquor store.
  9. The building’s infrastructure. Especially if you’re looking at an older building or if you’re starting an online business, make sure the space can support your high-tech needs. If you’re getting serious about a building, you might want to hire an engineer to check out the state of the place to get an objective evaluation.
  10. Rent, utilities and other costs. Rent is the biggest facilities expense, but check out the utilities, as well, and whether they’re included in the lease or not. You don’t want to start out with one price and find out it’s going to be more later.

Once you know what to look for and it’s time to start searching for a place that fits all of your qualifications, these four tips can help.

  1. Think on your own timeframe. Landlords are starting to offer shorter-term office rentals. Don’t get stuck in a long-term lease if it doesn’t make sense for your business.
  2. Play the whole field. There are all sorts of places to use — co-working spaces, office business centers, sublets and more. Keep your options open.
  3. Click around town. You might be able to find the perfect place by using online resources.
  4. Do the deal on your terms. Again, you have options. Don’t get roped into something that makes you uncomfortable.

After you have a location, you can focus on the aesthetic. You can check out a few design ideas here.

11. Start getting some sales.

No matter your product or industry, your business’s future is going to depend on revenue and sales. Steve Jobs knew this — it’s why, when he was starting Apple, he spent day after day calling investors from his garage.

There are a ton of different sales strategies and techniques you can employ, but here are four tenets to live by:

  1. Listen. “When you listen to your clients/customers, you find out what they want and need, and how to make that happen,” says investor and entrepreneur John Rampton.
  2. Ask for a commitment, but don’t be pushy about it. You can’t be too shy to ask for a next step or to close a sale, but you also can’t make customers feel as though you’re forcing them into a sale.
  3. Don’t be afraid of hearing “no.” As former door-to-door salesman (and now co-founder of software business Pipedrive) Timo Rein said, “Most people are too polite. They let you make your pitch even if they have no interest in buying. And that’s a problem of its own. Time is your most important resource.”
  4. Make it a priority. As entrepreneurial wizard Gary Vaynerchuk said, “Actually creating revenue, and running a profitable business, is a good strategy for business. Where are we that people think users or visits or time on site is the proxy to a successful business?”

But how do you actually make those sales? Start by identifying targets who want your product or service. Find early adopters of your business, grow your customer base or put out ads to find people who fit your business. Then, figure out the right sales funnelor strategy that can convert these leads into revenue.

12. Grow your business.

There are a million different ways to grow. You could acquire another business, start targeting a new market, expand your offerings and more. But, no growth plan will matter if you don’t have the two key attributes that all growing companies have in common.

First, they have a plan to market themselves. They use social media effectively through organic, influencer or paid campaigns. They have an email list and know how to use it. They understand exactly who they need to target — either online or off — with their marketing campaigns.

Then, once they have a new customer, they understand how to retain them. You’ve probably heard many people state that the easiest customer to sell to is the one you already have. Your existing customers have already signed up for your email list, added their credit card information to your website and tested what you have to offer. In doing so, they’re starting a relationship with you and your brand. Help them feel as good about that relationship as possible.

Start by utilizing these strategies, which include investing in your customer service and getting personal, but realize your work will never be done. You’ll constantly be competing for these customers in the marketplace, and you can never simply rest on your laurels. Keep researching the market, hiring good people and making a superior product and you’ll be on your way to building the empire you always dreamed about.

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ក្រុមសហជីព ស្នើឲ្យសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក ពិចារណាចំពោះការដាក់ទណ្ឌកម្មឡើងវិញ និងថា មិនចង់ឃើញក្រុមកម្មករនិយោជិត ក្លាយជាជនរងគ្រោះ និងចំណាប់ខ្មាំង របស់អ្នកនយោបាយខ្មែរឡើយ។

ក្នុងលិខិតនោះ ក្រុមសហជីព លើកឡើងថា៖ «ក្នុងនាមយើងខ្ញុំ តំណាងឲ្យកម្មករនិយោជិតនៅកម្ពុជា ដែលបាននឹងកំពុងធ្វើសកម្មភាពការងារយ៉ាងសកម្ម ក្នុងការជំរុញឲ្យមានការលើកកម្ពស់លក្ខខណ្ឌការងារ និងជីវភាពជូនកម្មករនិយោជិត ពិតជាមិនចង់ឃើញកម្មករនិយោជិតក្លាយជាជនរងគ្រោះ និងជាចំណាប់ខ្មាំងរបស់ក្រុមអ្នកនយោបាយណាមួយឡើយ»

ក្នុងលិខិតមួយទៀត ផ្ញើទៅឯកអគ្គរដ្ឋទូតសហភាពអឺរ៉ុបប្រចាំកម្ពុជា លោក Gorge Edgar នៅថ្ងៃពុធនេះ ក្រុមសហជីពដដែលនេះ ក៏ស្នើដល់សហគមន៍អឺរ៉ុប ដែលជាទីផ្សារនាំចេញដ៏ធំ ក្នុងវិស័យកាត់ដេរសំលៀកបំពាក់ និងស្បែកជើង អនុញ្ញាតឲ្យកម្ពុជា អាចបន្ដនាំចេញទំនិញនានាទៅកាន់ទីផ្សារអន្ដរជាតិ និងបន្ថែមការបញ្ជាទិញពីកម្ពុជា ឲ្យបានច្រើនជាងមុន។

ការអំពាវនាវរបស់ក្រុមសហជីព គឺបន្ទាប់ពីសហគមន៍អឺរ៉ុប សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក និងប្រទេសលោកសេរីមួយចំនួន បានព្រមានដាក់ទណ្ឌកម្មលើកម្ពុជា ក្រោយមានការរំលាយគណបក្សប្រឆាំងដ៏ធំ កាលពីពេលថ្មីៗនេះ។ ប្រទេសលោកសេរីទាំងនេះ បានជំរុញជាច្រើនដង ឲ្យរដ្ឋាភិបាលកម្ពុជា ងាកមកដើរតាមគន្លងលទ្ធិប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ និងគោរពសិទ្ធិមនុស្ស។

ប្រធានសហភាពចលនាកម្មករកម្ពុជា លោក ប៉ាវ ស៊ីណា អះអាងថា ការដែលក្រុមសហជីព មិនដាក់លិខិតទៅរដ្ឋាភិបាលនោះ ព្រោះលោកថា មិនចង់ដាក់បន្ទុកឲ្យភាគីណាមួយ និងចង់ឲ្យអន្ដរជាតិ ដើរតួជាអ្នកសម្របសម្រួលដោះស្រាយបញ្ហានយោបាយ ដែលកំពុងតានតឹងនេះ។

លោកស្នើថា អ្នកនយោបាយ គួរពិភាក្សាគ្នារកដំណោះស្រាយ មុននឹងអន្ដរជាតិដាក់ទណ្ឌកម្ម ដែលធ្វើប្រជាពលរដ្ឋខ្មែរ ក្លាយជាជនរងគ្រោះទៅវិញ។

ក្នុងបទសម្ភាសន៍ផ្ដាច់មុខជាមួយវិទ្យុ VOA នៅព្រឹកនេះដែរ ឯកអគ្គរដ្ឋ​ទូត​សហរដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​ប្រចាំ​កម្ពុជា លោក លោក វីល្លៀម ហៃដ្ត​ មានប្រសាសន៍ថា សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក កំពុងពិនិត្យមើលគោលនយោបាយការបរទេសជាមួយកម្ពុជាឡើងវិញ បន្ទាប់ពីគណបក្សសង្រ្គោះជាតិ ដែលគេរំពឹងថា អាចយកឈ្នះការបោះឆ្នោតនៅឆ្នាំក្រោយ បែរជាត្រូវគេរំលាយចោល។

លោក លោក វីល្លៀម ហៃដ្ត​ យល់ថា នៅកម្ពុជា ពិបាកស្វែងយល់ពីលទ្ធិប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ និងការបោះឆ្នោត ដែលមានភាពត្រឹមត្រូវ និងយុត្តិធម៌ បន្ទាប់ពីបាត់បង់គណបក្សប្រឆាំងដ៏ធំ ដែលធ្វើឲ្យពលរដ្ឋ មិនអាចជ្រើសរើសគណបក្ស ដែលពួកគេពេញចិត្ត។

ស្ថានការណ៍នយោបាយកម្ពុជាបច្ចុប្បន្ន​នេះ ត្រូវបានមជ្ឈដ្ឋានជាតិ និងអន្តរជាតិមើលឃើញថា កំពុងមានភាពតានតឹង បន្ទាប់ពីលោក កឹម សុខា ត្រូវ​បាន​ចាប់​ខ្លួន​ដាក់​ពន្ធនាគារ​ ហើយ​គណបក្ស​ប្រឆាំង​ដ៏​ធំ ​ត្រូវ​បាន​រំលាយ​ចោល​កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​១៦ខែ​វិច្ឆិកា៕

បើតាមរបាយការណ៍ ផលិតផលក្នុងវិស័យកាត់ដេរសំលៀកបំពាក់ ស្បែកជើង និងវិស័យផ្សេងទៀត ប្រមាណ៨០ភាគរយ ត្រូវបាននាំចេញទៅកាន់ទីផ្សារអឺរ៉ុប និងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក។ ហើយក្រុមសហជីពថា បើបិទច្រកទីផ្សារទាំង២នេះមែន នោះនឹងធ្វើប៉ះពាល់ជីវភាពកម្មករ ប្រមាណ៨០ម៉ឺននាក់៕

ស្ករត្នោតកម្ពុជាទទួលបានចំណាត់ថ្នាក់លេខ១ប្រចាំអាស៊ានក្នុងឆ្នាំ ២០១៧

យោងតាមសេចក្តីប្រកាសព័ត៌មានរបស់ក្រុមហ៊ុនខនហ្វីរេល នៅព្រឹកថ្ងៃទី២១ ខែវិច្ឆិកា ឆ្នាំ២០១៧ ស្ករត្នោតសរីរាង្គកម្ពុជាទទួលបានពានរង្វាន់លេខ១ ជាផលិតផលល្អបំផុតប្រចាំអាស៊ានក្នុងឆ្នាំ ២០១៧ នៅក្នុងសន្និសីទម្ហូបអាហារអាស៊ានលើកទី១៥ ដែលប្រព្រិត្តទៅនៅប្រទេសវៀតណាម។

នេះ​គឺជា​លើកដំបូង​ដែល ស្ករត្នោត​កម្ពុជា​បានទទួល​រង្វាន់​ជា​មេ​ដាយ​មាស​នៅក្នុង​តំបន់​អាស៊ាន បន្ទាប់​ពី​រយៈពេល​ ១២​ ​ឆ្នាំ​នៃ​ការ​ទទួល​បាន​ពាន​ដូច​គ្នា​នេះ​ប្រចាំ​តំបន់​អឺរ៉ុប​។

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មក​ដល់​ពេល​នេះ មាន​តែ​ស្ករ​ត្នោត​កំពង់ស្ពឺ​របស់​កម្ពុជា​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ ដែល​ទទួល​បាន​ឋានៈ​ជា​ផលិតផល​សម្គាល់ ទីតាំង​ភូមិសាស្ត្រ ឬ ​(GI)​។

ក្រៅពីផលិតផលស្ករត្នោត កម្ពុជាបានចុះបញ្ជីផលិតផល GI  លើផលិតផលម្រេចកំពត និងផលិតផលមួយចំនួនទៀត​ដោយទទួលបានការការពារស្របច្បាប់ពីប្រទេសថៃ  ជាពិសេសនៅសហភាពអឺរ៉ុបរួចមកហើយ។

 

23 Ways to Make Money, Being a Student

As a college student, you often find yourself strapped for cash. Chances are you have some spare time to earn a few extra dollars in between managing classes and a social life. Thankfully, there are many possibilities to make money as a college student. It’s even possible to earn an income without having to leave your dorm room!

Make Money From Anywhere

These following work ideas are where the true income potential is! This is because you can partake in any of these income streams from anywhere with an internet connection. Even better, you can use your technical skills and these projects to build your portfolio and potentially turn into a long-term income stream that lasts well beyond your college years.

  1. Get Paid to Exercise

Employer wellness programs in recent years have begun paying employees for healthy behaviors. If you use a fitness app to record your steps or other physical activity, AchieveMint connects with 40+ Android and iPhone apps to pay you money for your healthy behaviors like exercise, counting calories, sleeping, and even for participating health research surveys.

  1. Take Online Surveys

If you have been wanting to give your two-cents on current issues and trends, you are an ideal candidate for taking surveys! Two of the best companies are Survey Junkie and Opinion Outpost that pay you cash. Online surveys are not as lucrative as working a typical part-time job, however, they can be completed when you have a few spare minutes in between classes or during a meal break and can serve as a secondary income stream.

  1. Become a Graphic Designer

Graphic design isn’t just for making website graphics and logos. While there is a strong demand for website design, it’s also possible to earn a tidy income by designing eBook covers, t-shirts, business cards, wall art, personalized gifts, and product packaging.

If you have an eye for design, put your talents to use with 99 Designs or Cafe Press. Either of these services will help you meet individual clients and large businesses looking for a quality designer.

  1. Freelance Write

Getting paid to write isn’t just for professional newspaper & magazine journalists. You might be surprised how many websites, blogs, and periodicals pay average people to write articles and eBooks for them. While being a journalism or writing major can lend you a competitive advantage, you don’t have to be the next Shakespeare or Stephen King to make money writing.

Anybody can make a steady income from freelance writing in their area of expertise such as personal finance, health & lifestyle, entertainment, marketing, etc. You already have experience writing research papers and college essays so the transition will be smaller than you expect.

Launching your freelance writing career might feel daunting at first. One of the best ways to get started is by taking the online course Earn More Writing that will show you how to build your personal brand and locate the best writing gigs in any niche.

  1. Start a Blog

If you want to pursue the previous idea of freelance writing, starting a blog is an excellent way to create a portfolio that prospective clients can use and earn passive income from affiliate marketing.

If you are unfamiliar with affiliate marketing, here’s a quick review. On your blog or YouTube channel, you place an affiliate link to a product you recommend that visitors can click on. When the visitors clicks on the link, they will be taken to the merchant website to buy the product. If they make a purchase, you get a percentage of the proceeds.

Think of it as a “referral fee” your landlord pays you when a friend signs an apartment lease and mentions your name. The beauty of affiliate links is that they can continue to be a source of income as long as people continue to visit your site and have the opportunity click on the links. It’s entirely possible to earn affiliate income from articles you wrote 3 or 4 years ago.

While it’s easy to add affiliate links to any post on your blog, there’s a smart way to monetize your blog. Michelle, a successful affiliate marketer, shares her secrets of how show earns over $100,000 a month in affiliate links with her Making Sense of Affiliate Marketing course.

  1. Start a YouTube Channel

If writing isn’t exactly your cup of tea, videos are another avenue to earn online income. In some ways, video channels like YouTube are more relevant than blogs with 1,000 words posts since you can visually see the person changing a car battery, performing a skateboard trick, or beating the final boss in a video game.

Similar to blogs, you can add affiliate links for products and services you recommend in the video. And, as long as the video is on YouTube and people continue to watch it, you have the opportunity to gain affiliate income when they make a purchase.

  1. Sell Something Online

If you have dreams of building the next eBay or Amazon e-commerce site, college is a great time to unleash your entrepreneurial spirit and create an online store. By using a platform like Shopify, you can start drop-shipping. This means you don’t have to kick your roommate out of your dorm to make room for all the inventory.

With Shopify, you create the sales pages and when the customer places an order, the manufacturer directly ships to the product from their warehouse to the customer’s front door. Or, you can always sell an online product like spreadsheets or eBooks that you have written.  Another benefit of selling with Shopify is that they have twice as many templates as other online shopping carts, and, they offer a 14-day free trial.

  1. Sell Your Video Game Accounts

Maybe you were a video game addict in high school and no longer have time to play them & still get good grades in college. If that’s the case, you might be able to sell your video game accounts online at sites like eBay to the highest bidder. You worked hard to make all that process and it can be a quick way to make some extra cash.

  1. Earn Stock Dividends

While your disposable income might be very small as a college student, it’s never too early to start investing in stocks that pay regular dividends. With historically low bank interest rates, the stock market is one of the few avenues to earn passive income. Investing as a college student can also be a great learning experience as you can learn the ins & outs of investing with a small amount money to prepare you for when you earn a “real” paycheck and will be managing larger investments in your retirement & taxable brokerage accounts.

To maximize your earning potential you will want to use an online broker with the lowest trading fees. Ally Invest allows you to trade stocks as low as $3.95 per trade which is very affordable.

You can also trade ETFs and Mutual Funds to increase your investment diversification by reducing market risk without sacrificing your earning potential.

In addition to having some of the lowest fees in the industry, Ally Invest has excellent customer service and some pretty good research tools as well.

Making Money On Campus

Let’s start with some of the classic ways to make money in college. These might include some of the ways your parents or older siblings worked as college students.

  1. Work-Study

At part of your financial aid package, although some positions are non-needs based, you might be able to find a work study job that allows you to get paid to study. Each semester, your school has paid work study positions to fill allowing you to potentially be a computer lab assistant, work behind the desk at the college library, or become a clerical assistant for an academic department.

Make Some Extra Cash by Taking Surveys

Taking surveys in your spare time can be a great way to earn some extra dough fast. Check out Survey Junkie which will pay you instantly with cash via Paypal. They have over 6,000,000 members and they have an 8.9/10 rating on Trust Pilot.

There is an element of “work” to these jobs, but, when you don’t have to replace paper in the printers or help a student or professor with a task, you can use the time to study.

  1. Give Campus Tours

Many colleges often have groups of visitors that come to view the historic buildings or historical sites on the campus grounds and offer a 1-hour tour several times each day. If you meeting new people and have school pride, being a tour guide is an easy way to earn a few extra dollars without a huge time commitment.

  1. Be a Cashier at the School Museum or Campus Gift Shop

Many historic colleges also have a school museum that tells about the history of the college and might include special collections donated by alumni for current students and visitors to enjoy. Included in every museum or campus is a gift shop and a cash register manned by a student cashier. Being a cashier means you might not have as much free time to study compared to being a computer lab or library assistant, however, being able to remain on-campus might mean you can walk to work and save on driving expenses.

  1. Work at the Cafeteria

You can also work in your school cafeteria or one of the restaurants within the student center food court. These jobs might be more time intensive although it can be possible to have flexible hours as you can work breakfast, lunch, or dinner, compared to only in the afternoons with other types of employment.

  1. Sell Used Textbooks

Selling back your used textbooks to the campus bookstore has one of the lowest cash redemption values. Instead, selling your books using BookScouter will immediately check the price from 35 buyback vendors to show you the highest price.

When you sell your books, you only have to package them and can mail them for free.

Off-Campus Opportunities

It’s also possible to work off-campus and potentially earn more money as on-campus jobs don’t always pay the highest.

  1. Drive for Uber

If you have a car and are comfortable with using it as a taxi around town, driving for Uber is a unique way to make money. You can set your driving hours and only accept the trips that appeal to you.

Keep in mind there are some minimal qualifications you must meet such as being at least 21 years old, have at least 3 years of driving experience, and own a 4-door vehicle.

  1. Deliver Pizzas

While we are on the topic of driving, delivering pizzas isn’t just for the 16-year-old high school student that just earned their driver’s license. Many fast-food and pizza joints are happy to employ college students as cashiers or cooks, but, you have the potential to earn a few extra dollars if you can deliver because you earn tips along with a base hourly wage.

  1. Work at the Public Library

The local public library might also have hourly positions available allowing you to shelf books & movies that have been checked in. This can be a good option if you only need to work one or two afternoons a week as these positions are often part-time.

  1. Tutor

Tutoring is a great way to help high school students gain an understanding of courses like Chemistry, Foreign Language, Math, etc. There are websites that allow you to advertise your services online and you can earn at least $10 per hour.

  1. Teach Music Lessons

Parents are always looking for affordable music lessons. If you have a musical gift, teaching music lessons in college can be a great way to gain teaching experience and use your skills. You should be prepared to drive to the student’s house if you do not have a public meeting space available.

  1. Donate Plasma

If you aren’t afraid of needles, donating plasma for cash can earn up to $400 per month & you help somebody with a medical need in the process.

  1. Participate in Medical Experiments

There might be paid medical experiments and psychology experiments offered on-campus or your local hospital might be conducting a legal trial as well. Depending on the experiment, you could earn up to $20 per hour!

  1. Become a Handyman

If you have hands-on experience mowing lawns, fixing leaky faucets, painting bedrooms, moving, etc., using a site like TaskRabbit can help you earn money by completing tasks in the local community where somebody needs an extra hand. This can be another good income stream if only need one-time tasks and don’t mind exerting a little physical energy in the process.

  1. Take Care of Pets

Petsitting is a big business across the country and some people make a six-figure income from it. By connecting with professionals and pet owners that need somebody to walk the dog or spend an hour playing with their pets while they are away at work or traveling the globe, can be good money.

You may need to gain some certifications before you can start pet sitting and you can also find leads at your local pet stores and veterinarian offices.

New Investment Projects Approved by CDC

តាមសំណើសុំវិនិយោគរបស់ក្រុមហ៊ុន គណៈកម្មាធិការតំបន់សេដ្ឋកិច្ចពិសេសកម្ពុជា នៃក្រុមប្រឹក្សាអភិវឌ្ឍន៍កម្ពុជា បានសម្រេចចេញ “វិញ្ញាបនប័ត្រចុះបញ្ជីជាស្ថាពរ” ជូនដល់ក្រុមហ៊ុនដូចខាងក្រោម៖
១) “Pro-Water International (Cambodia) Co., Ltd.”: គម្រោងបង្កើតរោងចក្រផលិតសម្ភារៈបរិក្ខារ គ្រឿងបង្គុំអាងហែលទឹក និងអាងប្រព្រឹត្តិកម្មទឹកស្អាត, មានទីតាំងវិនិយោគស្ថិតនៅក្នុងតំបន់សេដ្ឋកិច្ចពិសេសព្រះសីហនុ ខេត្តព្រះសីហនុ, មានទុនវិនិយោគប្រមាណ ៥,២លានដុល្លារអាមេរិក និងអាចបង្កើតការងារបានចំនួន ៤២៥នាក់។
២) “Re Theng Tobacco Co., Ltd.”: គម្រោងបង្កើតរោងចក្រផលិតបារី, មានទីតាំងវិនិយោគស្ថិតនៅក្នុងតំបន់សេដ្ឋកិច្ចពិសេសដ្រេហ្គនឃីងបាវិត ខេត្តស្វាយរៀង, មានទុនវិនិយោគប្រមាណ ១,១៤លានដុល្លារអាមេរិក និងអាចបង្កើតការងារបានចំនួន ២១៥នាក់។

តាមសំណើសុំវិនិយោគរបស់ក្រុមហ៊ុន គណៈកម្មាធិការវិនិយោគកម្ពុជា នៃក្រុមប្រឹក្សាអភិវឌ្ឍន៍កម្ពុជា បានសម្រេចចេញ “វិញ្ញាបនប័ត្រចុះបញ្ជីជាស្ថាពរ” ជូនដល់ក្រុមហ៊ុនដូចខាងក្រោម៖
១) “TIMBERMET (CAMBODIA) CO., LTD.”: គម្រោងបង្កើតរោងចក្រកាត់ដេរសម្លៀកបំពាក់, មានទីតាំងវិនិយោគស្ថិតនៅផ្លូវ២២៤ ភូមិត្រពាំងថ្លឹង សង្កាត់ចោមចៅ ខណ្ឌពោធិ៍សែនជ័យ រាជធានីភ្នំពេញ, មានទុនវិនិយោគប្រមាណ ២,៣៤លានដុល្លារអាមេរិក និងអាចបង្កើតការងារបានចំនួន ៨៥៤នាក់។
២) “PANEFORT (CAMBODIA) GARMENT CO., LTD.”: គម្រោងបង្កើតរោងចក្រកាត់ដេរសម្លៀកបំពាក់, មានទីតាំងវិនិយោគស្ថិតនៅភូមិព្រែកត្រែង ឃុំសំរោងធំ ស្រុកកៀនស្វាយ ខេត្តកណ្តាល, មានទុនវិនិយោគប្រមាណ ៦,៤៦លានដុល្លារអាមេរិក និងអាចបង្កើតការងារបានចំនួន ២.០៥០នាក់។

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តាមសំណើសុំវិនិយោគលើគម្រោងបង្កើតរោងចក្រកាត់ដេរសម្លៀកបំពាក់របស់ក្រុមហ៊ុន “FUSHUN CAMBO FASHION CO., LTD” គណៈកម្មាធិការវិនិយោគកម្ពុជា នៃក្រុមប្រឹក្សាអភិវឌ្ឍន៍កម្ពុជា បានសម្រេចចេញ “វិញ្ញាបនប័ត្រចុះបញ្ជីជាស្ថាពរ” ជូនដល់ក្រុមហ៊ុនខាងលើ ដែលមានទីតាំងវិនិយោគស្ថិតនៅភូមិកណ្តឹងតូច ឃុំកណ្តឹង ស្រុកបាទី ខេត្តតាកែវ មានទុនវិនិយោគប្រមាណ ២,៤៥លានដុល្លារអាមេរិក និងអាចបង្កើតការងារបានចំនួន ១.០៦៩នាក់។

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តើវិក្កយបត្រក្រុមហ៊ុនមានចំនុចសំខាន់ត្រង់ណាខ្លះ?

អាជីវកម្មខ្នាតតូចភាគច្រើនធ្វើប្រហែសក្នុងការចេញវិក្កយបត្រ ពិសេសគឺវិក្កយបត្របង់ពន្ធ (Tax Invoice) ដោយសារគិតថាវាជាបញ្ហាតូចតាច។ តាមពិត ការចេញវិក្កយបត្របង់ពន្ធមានសារៈសំខាន់ណាស់សម្រាប់អាជីវកម្ម។ ការចេញវិក្កយបត្រខុសប្រក្រតី ឬខុសពីការណែនាំ ប្រកាស ឬច្បាប់ស្តីពីពន្ធដារ នឹងបណ្តាលឲ្យក្រុមហ៊ុនរបស់លោកអ្នកជួបបញ្ហានៅពេលក្រោយ ដែលអាចបណ្តាលឲ្យអាជីវកម្មទាំងមូលដួលរលំបាន។ វិក្កយបត្រមានចំនុចសំខាន់ៗមួយចំនួនដែលថ្នាក់ដឹកនាំក្រុមហ៊ុនត្រូវពិនិត្យឲ្យបានជាក់លាក់។

  • កាលបរិច្ឆេត៖ ត្រូវពិនិត្យឲ្យបានច្បាស់ថាវិក្កយបត្រមានកាលបរិច្ឆេត ដូចនឹងកាលបរិច្ឆេតដែលក្រុមហ៊ុនត្រូវប្រកាសពន្ធ។
  • លេខរៀងវិក្កយបត្រ៖ ត្រូវពិនិត្យមើលលេខស្វ៊ីតរបស់ក្រុមហ៊ុន ជៀសវាងការរំលងលេខរៀង។
  • អាសយដ្ឋានក្រុមហ៊ុន៖ ពន្ធដារនឹងពិនិត្យមើលចំនុចមួយនេះ។ ក្រុមហ៊ុនស្របច្បាប់មួយត្រូវមានអាសយដ្ឋានច្បាស់លាស់។
  • ហត្ថលេខា និងត្រា៖ ហត្ថលេខា ត្រូវចុះដោយដៃ មិនអាចព្រីនកូឡឺ ឬចេញជាហត្ថលេខាអេឡិចត្រូនិចបានទេ។ ត្រូវបោះត្រាពណ៌ខៀវ ដាច់ខាតមិនត្រូវបោះត្រាពណ៌ក្រហមដាច់ខាត។
  • ការគណនាចំនួនទឹកប្រាក់៖ ត្រូវមានភាពច្បាស់លាស់ក្នុងការគណនាចំនួនទឹកប្រាក់សរុប ប្រាក់ពន្ធត្រូវបង់ និង​ប្រាក់ផ្សេងៗទៀត ដើម្បីជៀសវាងបញ្ហានៅពេលមានការចុះសវនកម្មពីខាងក្រៅ (External Audit)។ បើបញ្ជូនឯកសារទាំងខុស ទៅពន្ធដារ ទោះដឹងឬមិនដឹងខ្លួនជាមុន នឹងបណ្តាលឲ្យមានបញ្ហាធំនៅពេលក្រោយ។

ចំណេះដឹងទាក់ទងនឹងការរៀបចំវិក្កយបត្រឲ្យបានត្រឹមត្រូវ មានសារៈសំខាន់ណាស់សម្រាប់ក្រុមហ៊ុន ដូចនេះ អាជីវករត្រូវស្វែងយល់បន្ថែមឲ្យបានច្បាស់អំពីបញ្ហាផ្សេងៗទាក់ទងនឹងវិក្កយបត្រ។ ក្រុមហ៊ុន CAMBIZIAN Consultant សូមស្វាគមន៍ចំពោះរាល់ការពិភាក្សាទាក់ទងនឹងបញ្ហាទាំងឡាយ ដែលលោកអ្នកបានជួបប្រទះក្នុងការធ្វើអាជីរកម្មរបស់លោកអ្នក។ សូមទំនាក់ទំនងមកកាន់យើងខ្ញុំ តាមរយៈអាសយដ្ឋាន លេខទូរស័ព្ទ និងអ៊ីមែល ដែលមានបង្ហាញនៅក្នុង មីនុយ Contact ក្នុងគេហទំព័រនេះ។ សូមអរគុណ!

ចង់បើកសិប្បកម្មផលិតទឹកសុទ្ធ តើត្រូវរត់ច្បាប់ដូចម្តេច?

បងប្អូនអាជីវករមួយចំនួន ដែលកំពុងសំឡឹងរកឪកាសវិនិយោគ ប្រហែលពុំទាន់ដឹងច្បាស់ ថាបើចង់បើកសិប្បកម្មផលិតទឹកសុទ្ធ តើត្រូវរត់ច្បាប់ដូចម្តេច? ពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងក្រសួងណាខ្លះនោះទេ? CAMBIZIAN CONSULTANT សូមរៀបរាប់ត្រួសៗអំពីក្រសួងដែលពាក់ព័ន្ធដូចតទៅ៖

  1. ក្រសួងឧស្សាហកម្ម និងសិប្បកម្ម៖ ក្រសួងមួយនេះ ជាអាណាព្យាបាល លើសិប្បកម្មខ្នាតតូច និងអាជីវកម្មទាំងឡាយណា ដែលទាក់ទងនឹងវិស័យផលិតកម្ម។ ក្រសួងនេះជាអ្នកវាយតម្លៃ ថាតើផលិតផលដែលបានផលិតចេញដោយគ្រឹះស្ថានរបស់លោក-អ្នក គោរពតាមស្តង់ដារគុណភាព ដែលមិនប៉ះពាល់ដល់សុខភាពរបស់ប្រជាពលរដ្ឋ ឬយ៉ាងណា។
  2. ក្រសួងពាណិជ្ជកម្ម៖ ក្រសួងនេះ មានភារកិច្ចគ្រប់គ្រងការចុះបញ្ជីធ្វើអាជីវកម្មថ្មីគ្រប់ប្រភេទ នៅក្នុងព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា ទាំងអាជីកម្មខ្នាតតូច មធ្យម និងធំ។ បើខកខានមិនបានចុះបញ្ជីពាណិជ្ជកម្ម នៅទីនេះ អាជីវកម្មរបស់លោក-អ្នក នឹងមិនអាចដំណើរការដោយស្របច្បាប់បានទេ។ បើគ្មានវិញ្ញាបនប័ត្រចុះបញ្ជីពីក្រសួងពាណិជ្ជកម្ម អគ្គនាយកដ្ឋានពន្ធដារក៏មិនទទួលចុះបញ្ជីពន្ធដារ និងប៉ាតង់ឲ្យអាជីវកម្មរបស់លោក-អ្នកបានដែរ។
  3. អគ្គនាយកដ្ឋានពន្ធដារ៖ ជាកន្លែងដែលត្រូវស្នើសុំចុះបញ្ជីពន្ធដារ ប៉ាតង់ និងប្រថាប់ត្រា។ ស្ថាប័នមួយនេះ ជាអ្នកតាមដាន ត្រូតពិនិត្យរាល់ការបង់ពន្ធ ពីអាជីវកម្មរបស់លោកអ្នក ចូលថវិការជាតិ។ ក្រោយពេលចុះបញ្ជីរួចរាល់ លោកអ្នកនឹងត្រូវបង់ពន្ធប្រចាំខែ និងប្រចាំឆ្នាំនៅតាមសាខាពន្ធដារណាមួយ អាស្រ័យលើអាសយដ្ឋានអាជីវកម្មរបស់លោក-អ្នក។

ប្រសិនបើលោកអ្នកមានចម្ងល់ទាក់ទងនឹងការបើកអាជីវកម្មផ្សេងៗ លោក-អ្នកអាចទាក់ទង ដើម្បីទទួលបានការប្រឹក្សាយោបល់អាជីវកម្ម ជាមួយជំនាញការផ្នែកប្រឹក្សាយោបល់របស់ក្រុមហ៊ុន CAMBIZIAN CONSULTANT តាមរយៈលេខទូរស័ព្ទ ដែលមានភ្ជាប់ជូនក្នុងរបារ CONTACT ខាងលើ។

 

Business Re-registration: what and why?

You may wonder what the Business Re-registration is, and why it is important to your business. It is actually a requirement for the existing businesses registered under the laws of Kingdom of Cambodia before January 01, 2016 (paper-work registration) to register again electronically into the government’s new online system.

The recent administrative reforms in the Ministry of Commerce, which is the business registrar, is one of the ambitious objectives made by the government to put everything away from paper work and to make everything available online. All business that were registered before January 01, 2016 are required to register their business again into the new government platform, otherwise resulting in some forms of penalty.

Finding that putting everything online is a challenge for the small, traditional business, CAMBIZIAN Consultant is please to help our clients re-register their business into the aforementioned online system.

Summary: Cambodian Intellectual Property Law

CAMBODIAN ADOPTED IP LAWS:

  • Law on Marks, Trade Names, and Acts of Unfair Competition (2002), procedural sub-decree (2006)
  • Law on Patents, Utility Model Certificates, and Industrial Designs (2003) , procedural sub-decree (2006)
  • Law on Copyright and Related Rights (2003)
  • Law on Plant Variety Protection (2008)
  • Prakas on Geographical Indication Registration (2009)

IP LAWS REMAINING TO BE PASSED:

  • Law on Trade Secret and Undisclosed Information
  • Law on Geographical Indications
  • Law on Compulsory Licensing for Public Health
  • Law on Integrated Circuits and Layout Design

IP TREATY MEMBERSHIP

  • Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883)
  • WIPO Convention (1967)
  • Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994)
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)

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Intellectual property is a vital asset for many firms doing business in Cambodia. Whether it be to distinguish goods from those of a competitor, protecting the fruits of research investment, or maintaining the confidentiality of financial plans, IP considerations surface in virtually all industries.

Cambodia’s 2004 accession to the World Trade Organization prompted the adoption of several laws regulating intellectual property rights. While it will be a number of years before Cambodia comes into full WTO compliance, investors can take advantage of this developing regulatory framework and seek out protection for their inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, and other creative products.

Although the laws are still in the early stages of development, relatively efficient procedures for registering and enforcing important IP rights are in place. Ignoring or postponing registering IP assets can be very costly in the long run.
This publication provides an overview of the principal areas of IP in Cambodia. Where there is no specific law – such as trade secrets or right of publicity – relevant articles of other laws are discussed. For more specific information, the reader is directed to our individual publications on each of the major IP regimes.

Trademarks

Trademarks allow their owners to prevent others from using identical or confusingly similar marks on their goods and services. Every enterprise operates under a trade name, and most also have trademarks that are separately protectable.

Indeed, registering and enforcing one’s trademarks is crucial to differentiating one’s products from those of competitors. While unregistered trade names receive a degree of protection, proper registration is a virtual necessity for any successful business.

Trademarks and related IPRs are protected under the Law on Marks, Trade Names and Acts of Unfair Competition of 2002. The Law lists the steps for registering a trademark and the scope of protection. An applicant who has already registered a mark in another member country of the Paris Convention will have priority in registering the mark in Cambodia.

The application process begins with the filing of an application form, fifteen specimens of the mark, and if filed by an agent, an original notarized power of attorney. Unless the application is rejected and requires an appeal, it usually takes about six months from filing to issuance of the final certificate.

Registrations are valid for ten years, renewable for successive ten-year terms. In the year following the fifth annivesary of the initial registration date, and each renewal registration date, the mark owner must submit an Affidavit of Use or Non-Use, and pay an official fee.

The Law also provides procedures for opposing, invalidating, and cancelling the marks of third parties. This can be crucial to prevent others from registering marks that are confusingly similar to one’s own.

A trademark owner has the right to prevent others from infringing their mark. The three main enforcement options are: i) sue in civil court for money damages and/or specific relief, ii) request the customs authorities to suspend clearance of imported infringing goods, and iii) seek criminal prosecution and/or fines.

Trademark law is the most developed field of IP in Cambodia. Though enforcement could be improved, registration procedures are well established and routinely practiced.

Patents & Utility Models

Patents and utility models protect the technical aspects of inventions. To receive a patent or utility model, the invention must be new and industrially applicable. For a patent, the invention must also involve an inventive-step, meaning it is not obvious to one skilled in the art. This is the key difference between the two – a utility model can be obvious, whereas a patentable invention cannot.

The Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs (2003) governs this area of IP. A protectable invention can be any idea which permits in practice the solution to a specific problem in the field of technology. The Law categorically excludes certain types of inventions, such as scientific theories and mathematical formulae. It also excludes inventions which are not socially “useful”, as they would harm public health or morality, such as illegal narcotics.

In exchange for a patent or utility model, the inventor must disclose the invention to the public. This way the body of public knowledge increases, and is available to all once the term of protection expires.

Patents last for 20 years from the date of filing. Utility models are valid for only 7 years. As utility models are less inventive than patented inventions, they are deemed to merit a shorter term of exclusivity. Owners of either must pay an annual maintenance fee to keep the registration alive.

Patent applications are filed with the Department of Industrial Property of the Ministry of Industry, Mines, and Energy (MIME). While Cambodia is not a party to the Patent Cooperation Treaty, the Law provides a procedure for registering foreign applications in Cambodia.

Patent owners need to be aware that their rights are subject to revocation and abridgement by the government. The Ministry has the right to exploit a patented invention itself, or allow a third party to do the same, to promote the public interest (e.g. national defense, nutrition, health, and development).

Further, holders who delay in exploiting their inventions risk having the government grant others licenses without their permission. Looking to the future, the government is currently considering a new law on compulsory licenses for certain drug patents.
The owner of a patent has the right to exclude others from making, importing, selling, stocking, offering for sale, and using infringing products. Both licensees and the patent owner have the right to bring a civil suit, seeking monetary damages and injunctive relief. The Law, however, does not provide a procedure for suspension of customs clearance for infringing goods.

Industrial Designs

Industrial designs protect a product’s special appearance, so long as it is new. The owner has the right to exclude others from exploiting the design, by making or selling it, for example.

The design can be a composition of lines or colors, a three-dimensional shape, or a novel material. Any technical product features are not protected, as that is the domain of patent law. Nor does it extend in a way that leaves no freedom as to arbitrary features of appearance.

As with patents and utility models, industrial designs are registered with the Department of Industrial Property of the Ministry of Industry, Mines, and Energy. In practice, the registration procedures are very similar.

Industrial design registrations last for a period of five years from the filing date, renewable for two further consecutive five-year terms, for a total of fifteen years.
Industrial designs are closely related to both copyrights and trademarks. In fact, there is significant overlap amongst the three, though each covers a different aspect of the product.

Copyright

Cambodia’s Law on Copyright and Related Rights (2003) provides protection for original works of authorship. Books, sculptures, architecture, computer programs, paintings, photographs, musical compositions and many other types of work are governed by the Law.

Authors have both economic and moral rights to their works. Economic rights relate to the commercial exploitation of the work, and allow the author to prevent others from making copies or derivative works.

For most authors, the economic rights expire fifty years after their death. Special rules apply for anonymous, pseudonymous, posthumous, collective, and audiovisual works.
Moral rights, on the other hand, are perpetual and non-transferable. They allow an author to prevent the destruction or modification of their work, to insist on public attribution as the author, and to decide on the manner and timing of the work’s publication.

The Law limits these rights in a number of ways. For instance, reproducing a work for non-commercial educational or private home use is generally permitted. Contrary to public perception, copyright is not an absolute right to prohibit all uses of one’s work.
Unlike trademarks, patents, and most other IPRs, there is no need to register a copyright. Works are protected automatically from the time of creation.

Nevertheless, there is a voluntary deposit procedure to register works with the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts. Though the Law does not require, nor specify any particular advantage to registering, it could help in enforcing one’s rights in administrative or judicial proceedings.

Geographical Indicators

A geographical indication is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific location, where the quality or reputation of the goods is essentially attributable to its place of origin. Examples of well-known geographical indications include Champagne, Florida Oranges, and Prosciutto di Parma. With a registered GI, regional producers should be better able to distinguish their goods from those of competitors, and hopefully charge a premium price.

Since early 2009, GIs are registrable with the Ministry of Commerce under an interim regulation, as the National Assembly considers a full GI law to comply with its WTO obligations.

As part of the registration procedure, the applicant must submit a Book of Specifications detailing the geographical area, production conditions, and qualification process for the products. Both domestic and foreign GIs can be registered. The initial term of protection is for ten years, renewable indefinitely.

Thus far, there have been two GI registrations – Kampot Pepper and Palm Sugar from Kompung Speu.

Trade Secrets

A trade secret is typically defined as any commercially valuable information that is not known, nor readily ascertainable, and is subject to reasonable efforts to maintain its secrecy.

Cambodia has no law specific to trade secrets, though a draft is under consideration. Nevertheless, provisions in a variety of laws impose duties of confidentiality and penalties for divulgence of commercial secrets.

Non-disclosure agreements are often used to maintain the confidentiality of information that needs to be shared, with an employee or contractor for example. Such agreements are contracts like any other, and should be enforceable under the Contract Law (1988).
The Law on Commercial Enterprises (2005) prohibits the unauthorized publication of a firm’s financial statements. The Law on Audit (2000) also imposes a duty of confidentiality on government auditors.

The Law on Banking and Financial Institutions (1999) prohibits certain people from disclosing any confidential information in accounting or administrative documents. The Law provides for criminal penalties of up to five years imprisonment and 250 million riels (approximately $62,000) in fines.

As in virtually every country, the Law on the Bar (1995) requires lawyers to maintain client confidences.

Finally, the Penal Code (2009) contains several provisions on point. Under the Code, any person who holds, by reason of their position, profession, function or mission, confidential information, and divulges such information, is subject to criminal prosecution. The Law also criminalizes the intercepting of mail, tapping into telephone calls, and hacking of computer networks.

Right of Publicity

The right of publicity allows an individual to prohibit or control the use of his identity for commercial purposes. This would prohibit, for instance, placing on a product’s package a photograph of someone without their permission.There is no law in Cambodia specifically on point, nor are any drafts currently under consideration.

The unauthorized use of someone’s identity for commercial purposes may be considered a form of unfair competition, in violation of “honest practice”. However, to the author’s knowledge, this has never been tested in a Cambodian court of law.

Perhaps the only legal provision treating the right of publicity is Article 26 of the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (2003), which prohibits unauthorized biographies.

Unfair Competition

Acts of unfair competition are prohibited under a separate chapter of the Trademark Law. These provisions are short, broad and vague. Any act of competition contrary to “honest practices” in business is prohibited. The law then lists three types of behavior as specifically, but non-exclusively, forbidden:

  • All acts which create confusion with the establishment, the goods, or services of a competitor;
  • False allegations which discredit a competitor’s goods or services; and
  • Indications or allegations which are liable to mislead the public as to the nature, manufacturing process, characteristics, suitability, or quantity of goods.

As with much of Cambodian law, there appears to have been no official interpretation or precedential cases explaining these provisions.